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Archive for the ‘Education’ Category

FDA Bans the Dangerous Brazilian Blowout

In Education, Natural Hair News, Product Reviews on September 12, 2011 at 10:57 am

After months of controversy, the F.D.A. found that the miracle hair relaxer contains an alarming amount of a potential carcinogen.

Craving perfectly straight, sleek hair? It may be time to go old school & pick up the flat iron.

Brazilian Blowout—one of the popular versions of the Brazilian keratin straightening treatments currently offered at salons—has just been confirmed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (F.D.A.) to contain “dangerous levels” of formaldehyde, in spite of its label claim to be “Formaldehyde Free.”  Formaldehyde is a carcinogen, which means it can cause cancer. Brazilian Blowout labels say the products “contain no formaldehyde,” as opposed to being “formaldehyde-free,” which the labels previously claimed. The products do contain methylene glycol — a liquid form of the chemical that emits formaldehyde gas when heated.

“Brazilian Blowout is misbranded because its label and labeling (including instructions for use) makes misleading statements regarding the product’s ingredients and fails to reveal material facts with respect to consequences that may result from the use of the product” wrote Michael W. Roosevelt, acting director of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition’s Office of Compliance.

 “The bottom line is that formaldehyde can be released from hair smoothing products that list any of these names on the label and workers can breathe it in or absorb it through their skin,” the Occupational Health and Safety Administration warned in April 2011. “Workers can be exposed to formaldehyde during the entire hair straightening process, especially when heat is applied,” during blow-drying or flat ironing, for example — key steps in the blowout process.
Most recently, a $5 million lawsuit filed June 27 by stylist Dana Lulgjuraj claims she suffered “physical injuries” while using Brazilian Blowout products at the Butterfly Studio Salon in Manhattan. At other salons all over the country, stylists and clients wear gas masks to protect themselves.

“We know that lawsuits are pending, and will likely carry on for some time. But now, perhaps, stylists still using the product will finally recognize what the smoothing solution contains, and the importance of preventing exposure,” reads a Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology statement on the FDA warning letter.

The Brazilian Blowout is one of many keratin-based smoothing treatments used by women of all ethnicities & hair types.  The treatments range in price from $350 to $600 and promise shiny, frizz-free hair for up to four months.  The FDA told the company it has until Sept. 12 to comply with the agency’s directive.

Have you used Brazilian Blowout treatments?  Did you experience any negative side effects?


WebMD Q&A interview with Hair Guru’s Ellin La Var & Kim Kimble | The Natural Socialite

In Education, Interviews, Natural Hair on August 30, 2011 at 10:03 am

Myths and misunderstandings abound when it comes to caring for African-American hair textures. Top experts gave WebMD crucial info on caring for ethnic hair, whether you wear it straight, braided, loose, or curly.

Here their answer common hair care questions.

How is African-American hair different from other textures?

One common myth is that there is just one type of African-American hair, says New York stylist Ellin LaVar, who has worked with celebrities including Angela Bassett, Naomi Campbell, Whitney Houston, Iman, Serena and Venus Williams, and Oprah.

“African-American hair isn’t just the very kinky, coarse texture,” says LaVar, who created the Ellin LeVar Textures hair care line.

Though the texture may vary, there are some similarities that make African-American hair different from other types, says Philadelphia dermatologist Susan Taylor, MD, who also directs the Skin of Color Center at St. Luke’s Roosevelt Hospital in New York. In general, the hair contains less water, grows more slowly, and breaks more easily than Caucasian or Asian hair.

Why is it so difficult to style my hair?

Product labeling can often be confusing and may lead African-American women and others with similar hair texture to purchase something that’s too heavy or just not appropriate.

“Look for products that describe the texture of your hair, not the color of your skin,” LaVar says.

 How often do I really need to shampoo?

The experts interviewed for this story told WebMD that you should shampoo at least every 14 days, but every seven to 10 days is recommended.

“I often have to explain to clients that African-American hair needs to be washed regularly,” says West Hollywood stylist Kim Kimble, who has worked with Beyonce, Mary J. Blige, Kerry Washington, and Vanessa Williams.

“Bacteria can grow on the scalp without regular cleansing and that’s unhealthy,” says Kimble, who has a line of products called Kimble Hair Care Systems.

Many women are worried about stripping the hair of moisture when they wash (in addition to the time-consuming ordeal of styling). LaVar suggests lathering with a moisturizing shampoo designed for normal or dry hair and following with a moisturizing conditioner.

Why does my hair keep breaking?

When you sap moisture from the hair, it loses suppleness and is more susceptible to breakage, LaVar says. Because African-American hair is naturally dry, it needs supplemental moisture to stand up to styling.    

Curly textures tend to be the most vulnerable because the bends in kinky hair make it difficult for natural oils to work their way down the hair shaft. So the curlier your hair the more vulnerable it is to drying out and breaking.       

Chemical and heat styling suck the internal moisture from hair, making it brittle and fragile. To fight breakage, look for heat-shielding and hydrating products that contain silicone, Taylor says. They coat the hair and help seal in moisture.

LaVar tells her clients to avoid products designed for limp hair. Ingredients that add body can actually strip oils and remove moisture, she says.

The experts also suggest wrapping your hair in a satin scarf or bonnet before bed to help your hair retain moisture. Cotton fibers in your pillowcase will wick away hydration.

Are there any moisturizers that don’t feel greasy?

“If the product feels greasy, it’s probably not adding moisture inside the hair,” LaVar tells WebMD. “You need a penetrating conditioner with lightweight oils that are absorbed rather than sit on top of the hair.”

Kimble agrees. She says that lanolin or other greasy products moisturize, but they clog the pores on your scalp and weigh hair down. She prefers conditioners with essential oils, like grape seed oil for example, that moisturize without leaving an oily residue.

Another tip: LaVar says that body lotion can be a good stand-in for a leave-in conditioner because it is designed to be absorbed into the skin. Rub a dime-sized drop between your palms and smooth it over the length of your hair.

Why is the hair around my temples thinning?

Braids are usually the culprit, experts tell WebMD. Tight or aggressive handling of the hair causes traction alopecia, a form of hair loss, Taylor says.

Plus, the weight of braids can stress the hair follicles and cause hair to fall out as well, Kimble notes.

Thinning can also be a result of hormone changes, genetics, or a health condition, so you should see a doctor as soon as you notice a change in your hair growth or texture.

Karen’s Body Beautiful Product Review | The Natural Socialite

In Dry Hair Remedies, Education, Product Reviews, Products, Style Guide, YouTube Videos on August 16, 2011 at 12:36 pm


Check out my product review of Karens Body Beautiful’s Heavenly Jojoba Oil & Sweet Ambrosia!



This product line can be purchased at

Have you tried any of Karen’s product line?  What products do you use & how do you use them?


Green Tea Health Benefits & Hair Remedies

In Dry Hair Remedies, Education, Natural Hair, Natural Hair News on July 6, 2011 at 11:06 am

green tea

One of the most popular herbal agents being used these days is green tea. This herbal tea is packed with antioxidants that combat harmful free radicals, deliver cancer-fighting flavonoids and disrupt the production of bacteria. The same antioxidants that help your body fight the free radicals that attack your cells also help your scalp when you use green tea shampoo. It protects your scalp from infections and gets rid of the impurities

Health Benefits of Drinking Green Tea

Cancer:  Clinical studies have proven green tea helps prevent many types of cancers, and there is research to support polyphenols may actually kill cancer cells and arrest their growth.  Bladder, breast, ovarian, colorectal, esophageal, lung, pancreatic, prostrate, skin, and stomach cancers have all shown to be positively affected by green tea.

Heart disease:  Natural News reports:

Research at the Graduate School of Medicine in Kyoto, Japan confirmed that green tea polyphenols can protect a heart from oxidative stress, as well as maintain good left ventricular function after ischemic arrest (restriction in the heart’s blood supply) and reperfusion (tissue damage caused when the blood supply returns).

Green tea also protects the heart by preventing hypertension.

Weight Loss:  Drinking green tea boosts the body’s metabolism. The polyphenols also help burn fat.  The World’s Healthiest Foods explains:

A human study, published in the January 2005 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, confirms green tea’s ability to not only reduce body fat, but damage to LDL cholesterol as well. After 12 weeks of drinking just one bottle of green tea each day, 38 normal-to-overweight men in Tokyo had a significantly lower body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat mass and amount of subcutaneous fat compared to men given a bottle of oolong tea each day.

Green Tea & Hair Growth

Using green tea to grow hair probably relates to the evidence for influencing
circulating hormones in the body. A high intake of green tea correlates to higher levels of sex hormone-binding protein – or globulin, which carries hormones like testosterone around the body in a bound, unusable form so that tissues cannot use it directly. Testosterone is usually carried around the body by this binding protein, therefore, reducing levels of free testosterone, so that it cannot be converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the hair follicle, which is thought to shorten the hair cycle and cause hair loss.

Soothes Dandruff and Psoriasis

Research also suggests that green tea can help with scalp conditions such as dandruff and psoriasis by soothing skin and reducing inflammation. Using a shampoo that contains green tea or using a green tea rinse after shampooing can help reduce scalp irritation. Many commercial anti-dandruff shampoos contain carcinogens, making green tea products a safer alternative. When choosing a green tea shampoo, look for one in which green tea appears close to the top of the list of ingredients and that does not contain harmful chemicals such as sodium lauryl sulfate or parabens, which could contribute to scalp irritations.

Strengthens and Conditions

Green tea also contains vitamin C, vitamin E and panthenol, which are all common ingredients in hair conditioner. Vitamin E restores dry or damaged hair, while vitamin C guards against damage from UV radiation. Panthenol, a provitamin, strengthens and softens hair and prevents split ends. Choose hair products that contain real green tea extract or EGCG.

Do you use Green Tea products as part of your beauty and health routines? How do you use Green Tea?

Always check with your doctor about the use of green tea for hair loss and regrowth as well as whether you should add it to your diet.  I only post this information for educational purposes.  Green tea contains caffeine, which has all the side effects of caffeine. 

“Dark Girls” Documentary Preview | Exploring complexion biases & attitudes

In Art & Beauty, Education, Self Help Series, YouTube Videos on May 26, 2011 at 1:14 pm

Check out the preview of this very interesting documentary which explores the complexion biases within the black community. Skin tone bias is a form of group privilege of some sort, in which people from the same race use factors such as skin tone, physical features, class, and communication to create social caste systems and  hierarchies within their own cultures.  The idea that there is some sort of “privilege” that still exists these days deeply disturbs me. The problem with this idea of group privilege is that is serves as a source of anguish and controversy because it grants unearned privilege to those with these particular characteristics, perpetuating discrimination and power disparities in all aspects of our lives. I think that one of the most disturbing examples in this preview is the young child who clearly identifies “light-skinned” people with being beautiful and “dark-skinned” individuals with being ugly.

Can any of you identify with some of the feelings that these women share?  What about the guys?  Do you find black women of a particular complexion more attractive?  Parents…. What are doing to prepare your children in terms of self-acceptance?  Do you think white people are as concerned about our complexions as we are?  Take a look at this video & please share your thoughts.

Peet Peeve Alert! Please stop saying “Dreadlocks”!!!

In Education, Natural Hair, Socialite Says on May 19, 2011 at 8:48 am

Bob Marley

Ok. This post stems from a conversation my husband & I had at lunch yesterday about this lady walking up to me and asking if I was “gonna let my hair dread”.  Now my husband KNOWS how much I 1) Hate the term “Dreadlocks” 2) Hate people assuming that since I’m natural, that it must be because I plan on locking my hair, so he immediately looked down at my face in anticipation of my “WTF” look.  Yeah, she got hit with the “WTF” face.

My WTF face

Let me start off by saying that yes, I know that most people are not really “into” natural hair the way I am.  Yeah, I understand that my fascination with natural hair is borderline obsessive.  I get that. But dang!  I can’t help but to get annoyed when people make generalizations and assumptions just because someone has natural hair.  And not to mention the term “dreadlocks”. To me, that’s the same as someone using a word to describe something and they have no idea what the word means.

Ok. Now I cannot sit here and rant about how this term sounds like fingernails on a chalkboard to me without explaining why this term is inappropriate offensive  to me.

Locs are not just related to the Rastafari movement, but are historically connected to a spiritual journey or relationship of the person wearing their hair in this manner. The term “dreadlocks” is a synthesis of the words dread & locks and was historically used to signify the “dread” in those who wore their hair like this. The Rastafari religion was once seen as a threat to Christianity and came under attack by the authorities that tried to suppress the ‘Rasta’ movement. Their dreadlocks were thought to be disgusting and frightening, hence the term ‘dread’ . It was also said that the wearer lived a “dread” life or a life in which he feared God, which gave birth to the modern name ‘dreadlocks’ in relation to this ancient style.

The term dreadlocks has a negative connotation attached to it, which is why people who are aware of the history behind this term prefer the use of “locks (locs)” or “African locks (locs)”.  Today, locks signify spiritual intent, natural and supernatural powers, and are a statement of non-violent non-conformity, communalism and socialistic values, and solidarity with less fortunate or oppressed minorities.

I understand that while many people wear locs as an expression of ethnicity and as an expression of their religious convictions, that some people wear them as a fashion preference. That’s fine with me.  I can be cool with that.  My only hope is that people will look deeper into the history behind the things that they do in search for a better (or any for that matter) understanding. Even though you may have decided to wear your hair in a loc style as a fashion statement, just try to be aware that it can be so much more than that for some people and that this term that you are comfortable throwing around can & may come across just as offensive as someone calling you a NI%$@.

Reader Request | Is there a “healthy” way for me to color my natural hair?

In Education, Reader Submissions on April 26, 2011 at 11:58 am

Q: Charlotte, I’m frustrated with rinses that only last a few washes at best, are there any more permanent options out there that are healthier for my hair?

A: Thank you for your question.  I am sure that there are others out there that have the same concern.  While our natural hair is as beautiful as it is, it seems that we all get that “itch” to color our tresses and create our own harmonizing hues.  Many of you know that my major hair crush is a stunning natural beauty with rich honey blonde hair by the name of Whitney Mero (side note: which I actually just discovered is the birth sister of my sister from another Mister *inserts scream here*), and I have obsessive dreams and aspirations of mimicking her mane style & color sometime down the line.  My main fear however, has always been that I will end up on the “I was natural for 3 years but I colored my hair and it all fell out and broke off” list and be forced into an unwanted 3rd big chop.  Not cool.  At all.

To properly answer your question, I first want you to understand exactly why there are limited options for those of us who may be fearful of opening that “color door”, and what is actually happening when we lighten [lift] our natural hair color.

The pigment of your hair comes from the inner two layers. When you bleach your hair, you damage the shingles that create the covering of the hair shaft. The dye, which slips through the gaps in the outer layers, swells to give your hair a different color. But the prior or current damage the bleach caused allows the dye to slowly slip out of the hair, so we end up losing the full body of the hair faster than if we had just left it alone.

Black hair is drier than other types of hair, which naturally makes it more prone to damage. If your hair color is naturally black or dark brown, you have to actually lift the color a few shades (2 or so) to see any difference.  In order to do this, your hair must be bleached, which cannot be done with pure plant (natural) products. You must use bleach and peroxide developer mix. While this method is effective, it strips the protein from your hair is extremely hard on the hair as well.

  • If you do decide to color, just be smart about it.  I would highly suggest a semi-permanent option which will be less harsh on the hair.
  • Visit a professional. I would highly recommend seeing a licensed hair professional that is also designated as a color specialist.
  • Start with your hair in optimum health. Do not color your hair if it is brittle, broken, and if you have split hairs. You are writing your own invitation to I’m not trying to be harsh but if you cannot maintain the health of your hair without color, more likely than not, you are not quite ready to maintain color treated hair. 
  • Shampoo hair with products that are sulfate-free.  Moisturizing shampoos are best.
  • Nourish your hair with a weekly deep conditioner or mask treatment in order to help prevent (and repair) damage
  • Try body art quality henna from a reputable source. Henna is a natural colorant and strengthener, and comes with all types of additional health benefits.  Henna is not permanent, but it may help satisfy your color fix.

I’ve personally heard good things about the coloring experience at the Aveda Salons.  While I have not tried their services myself, I can appreciate their use of conditioning plant oils & their acknowledgement of the “dangers” traditional coloring as well as their commitment to protecting mother earth. 

From the website:

Discover hair color with the energy of plants. Our innovative formulas leave hair essentially damage-free—infused with conditioning plant oils for shinier, healthy-looking color.

Full Spectrum Deep™ Creme Color for Dark Hair
Transforms dark hair to light—vibrant, true-to-life tones from a single, simple process. All from a 93% naturally derived* formula, so color is healthy-looking, luminous—and it’s gentle on the Earth as on hair.

Shades of Enlightenment™ Advanced Lifting Creme Hair Color
Blondes awaken with the first permanent hair color system that’s 97% naturally derived*—capturing the active energy of plants.

Full Spectrum Deposit-Only Color Treatment
This 99% naturally derived formula* delivers rich color that lasts up to eight weeks. Treatment formula actually improves the condition of damaged hair.

Full Spectrum™ Protective Permanent Creme Hair Color
A 97% naturally derived formula* which delivers superior permanent color that resists fading—keeps hair shiny and essentially damage-free.

  *from plants and non-petroleum based minerals

Have you colored your natural hair?  What was your experience?

10 Summer Tips for Healthy Natural Hair | Natural Socialite

In Education, Seasonal Hair Care on April 22, 2011 at 10:25 am

Summer sun rays, chlorine & salt water can make natural hair look dull, feel like straw and can fade your new coppery color.  Just as you want to protect your skin from the sun’s harmful UVA & UVB rays, you should exercise the same level of care when protecting your hair.  Summertime sun protection doesn’t just mean taking care of your hair when you are on the beach or sipping cocktails poolside.  You should be just as conscious of the sun’s damaging rays whether you are walking the dog or manicuring your lawn.

Sure.  You’ve worked hard all winter shielding your hair from the elements with protective styles, caps, scarves and what have you. You’ve religiously worn buns, make sure your ends were tucked in, and you probably even tried every “natural looking” wig you saw your favorite vlogger review on YouTube. If you are planning any sort of daytime outdoor activities this summer, just make sure you exercise a similar level of care to make this winter’s work worth while.

Protect you hair & skin this summer with these tips:

1. Cover your hair! It’s your best line of defense in protecting your hair: get a good hat (wide-brimmed) if possible, or get creative with scarves that hide your hair from the sun. Channel your inner June Ambrose!

2. Braid hair or wear a ponytail when swimming. It will protect some of your hair from chlorine or salt water effects

3. Rinse hair immediately after swimming in chlorinated water and use a conditioner with a low pH value (about 3.5) to smooth the cuticle and lock colour particles in.

4. Use a quality conditioner with moisturizing ingredients to deep condition your hair on a weekly basis during the summer. Look for ingredients such as wheat germ, jojoba oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, silk amino acids, etc. You can even try mixing a few oils together. These oils applied to the ends of your strands will work great on frizzy hair.

5. Avoid products that contain synthetic oils such as mineral and/or petrolatum oil, as they further dehydrate your hair. Also avoid products that contain drying alcohol, such as hair spray, mousse and some gels.

6. Your hair needs to be treated more gently during the summer. Use a specific mask to make it soft and rinse with fresh water to seal the hair cuticle and impart natural shimmer. Allow your hair to dry naturally do not use hot styling tools (blow dryers, hot irons, rollers).

7.  Pay special attention to the ends of your hair; after all, they are the oldest part of the hair. Mix a bit of a conditioner with a natural oil, apply, and comb through ends; leave in for extra protection.

8. Wear a PVC-free swim cap that thoroughly protects the hair when possible.

9. Opt for styles that keep your ends protected, such as braids, two-strand twists, cornrows, flat twists and buns. You can use extensions, if you like, but if your hair is long enough, you can use your own hair

10. Once the sun goes down, let it all hang out! You have worked hard to protect your hair & now you get to show it off.  Release your natural curls & all of their glory!  Show the world what you are working with!

How do you protect your hair in the summer?  Please share your tips!

Do Prenatal Vitamins Really Help Hair Growth?

In Education, Natural Hair, Products, Socialite Says on April 21, 2011 at 10:31 am

For as long as I can remember, I have always heard that taking prenatal vitamins can aid in stimulating hair growth. Now when you are actually pregnant, your body actually produces more estrogen than normal which locks the hair into the growth phase, encouraging additional growth. But what about taking prenatal vitamins when you are not pregnant, and just want more of a growth spurt for your marvelous mane?   Believe it or not, there is no reliable research available that supports this claim.

If you are someone who actually has some sort of vitamin deficiency, then there is some evidence that vitamins can help, but if you already have a somewhat healthy diet & lifestyle, prenatals won’t miraculously work wonders for you. In situations where you do lack some sort of vitamin deficiency, then a daily multi-vitamin will just about do the same thing.

The difference between prenatal vitamins and multi-vitamins is that prenatals usually have more iron (which is why you may get an upset tummy) & folic acid.  People usually target prenatals as the growth culprit because the vitamin B in folic acid accelerates growth of fresh cells, which replace the old cells and calcium helps in maintaining a healthy scalp. This increased dosage may however have adverse affects on people with some health conditions, including those of the liver and kidney.

If you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant prenatal vitamins should definitely be high on you list, because protecting the health of your baby is what’s most important.

Please consult with your doctor before taking prenatal vitamins when you are not pregnant.  If you have insurance, it’s usually cheaper for your OBGYN to write a prescription for prenatal vitamins anyway because you can end up just paying your copay.

Fighting to be Frizz Free | Anti-Humectants & Natural Hair

In Education, Natural Hair, Product Reviews, Products, Socialite Says, Style Guide on April 21, 2011 at 9:01 am


Summertime is quickly approaching and in my super humid climate, that means FRIZZ FEST 2011!  Humidity seems to find me, even if I’m inside hiding behind barricaded doors.  I remember the first time straightening my hair straightened after my big chop, and the horror I experienced when I woke up the next morning to a full-blown fro.  Mortified and hopeless, I was convinced that I would never see my luxurious locks in a straightened state again. It took me visiting a very knowledgeable (and amazing) hair stylist who was also a natural sister herself, to learn that all was not lost.  She educated me on why humidity causes natural hair to frizz, and what I could do to combat my flat-iron reversion. Whether you are natural and wear your hair curly, or choose to break out the flat-iron every now and then…. anti-humectants can be a girl’s best friend.

Now I’m no scientist, so I can’t tell you the science behind what makes this stuff work.  I can just tell you what I know based on a little research & a whole lot of experience (good & bad).  If you need to know the whole molecular mumbo jumbo, then feel free to read this.  If you just want to get the gist of things and have a banging hair day, then read on my dear.

Anti-Humectants are literally moisture blockers that provide a barrier between your hair & the environment while repelling water from the hair.  For obvious reasons,  a good anti-humectant will not be water based.  In many products, the ingredients used for anti-humectants are silicones. This is because they seal your hair against the humidity. They are not very moisturizing but they can be effective.

On the contrary, there will also be times when using humectants are a more favorable choice.  Humectants can help moisturize the hair in dry climates. These products will actually pull the moisture from the environment and help keep your tresses hydrated.


My favorite commercial anti-humectant product is hands down the Aveda Brilliant Anti-Humectant Pomade. The Aveda line is typically expensive in general and this product is no exception, so make sure you ask if they have samples available when shopping in the store.  Natural anti-humectant options (to name a few) include  hydrogenated castor oil, palm oil, beeswax, shea butter & castor oil.

Key tips to remember:

1. Know when & where you use your products.  Humectants (dry climates) = add moisture ; Anti- Humectants (humid climates) = repel moisture

2. Make sure your hair is clean, conditioned, detangled, and well rinsed before heat styling.

3. Use a leave in and heat protectant prior to using blow dryers, curling irons, and flat ironing tools. Do not use oil prior to heat styling your hair!

4.  A little goes a long way!  You can always add more product, but once you have used too much…. well…

*Note* My hair lasted about 11 days before “reverting” which is nothing short of a miracle :0)

Aveda Anti-Humectant Pomade Ingredients:

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride, Isopropyl Palmitate, C18-38 Acid Triglyceride (Mixed Plant (Melange de Plantes)), Bio-Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate 1 (Source: Coconut (Noix de Coco)), BIS Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate 2 (Mixed Plant (Melange de Plantes)), Castor Oil (Ricinus Communis), Phenyl Trimethicone (Silica (Silice)), Cyclomethicone, Fragrance (Parfum), Glyceryl Laurate (Mixed Plant (Melange de Plantes)), Rice Bran Oil (Oryza Sativa)